participating in various exhibitions, including most notably Elas: mulheres artistas no acervo do MAB-Faap,
in São Paulo, Gráfica Latinoamericana y
del Caribe, in Beijing, and the Southern Hemisphere International Printmaking
Exhibition (Passage), in Seoul,
Bonomi produced important works such as Popessuara,
consisting of laser-cut pieces of stainless steel for the commemorative album
of the 100th anniversary of the Pinacoteca de São Paulo. She also made
the trophy for the Associação Brasileira dos Críticos de Arte.
furthermore put together academic and consulting panels for stage settings and
costumes she created for the theater play Diálogos
de Salomé com São João Batista, directed by Sergio Ferrara at the Teatro
Sergio Cardoso. Since 2014 Maria has been involved in the research for a book
concerning her production written by art critic and historian Mayra Laudanna of
the Universidade de São Paulo.
important reference work, A Dialética
Maria Bonomi, published in Switzerland by Éditions du Griffon, presents an
artist who “emerges as one of the most important exponents of Brazilian and
international art in the second half of the 20th century,” in the words of the
likewise USP professor and director of the Biblioteca Mário de Andrade, Luiz
philosopher, “Maria Bonomi is perhaps the only case of an artist who lived in
the same milieu and saw at firsthand many developments of the artistic
avant-gardes from the end of the 1950s onward, and yet not did join any of them
– not the abstractions, not the artificial pop trends, nor the new realisms.
She remained faithful to both xilogravura
[wood engraving] and xilografia [wood
printing], terms she coined herself to denote unfoldings of her attitude at the
moment of engraving the wood, later employed in other materials: synthetics,
metals, clay, etc.” For Luiz Armando Bagolin, Maria Bonomi’s work is
manifested, in the city, in a very striking and lofty way, always being related
to the context she seeks to re-signify.
the book, published in three volumes (English, French and Portuguese), she also
presented a show featuring 14 of her works at the headquarters of the publisher
in Neuchâtel, coincidentally the city where the artist held her first international
exhibition, in 1955.
artist’s close relationship with universities coupled with her extensive
dedication to the teaching and research of arts in Brazil brought her an honor
from the most important agency for the fostering of research in São Paulo. In
2015, Fapesp invited Bonomi to compose its report of activities with images of
part of her oeuvre, commented on by Professor Teixeira Coelho. Besides the
publication, the honor was complemented by a solo show at the institution’s
same year, in Rio de Janeiro, the artist also bestowed an honor – on her
friend, Brazilian popular music singer Maria Bethânia. For the show Maria de Todos Nós, Bonomi created La Chanson, a striking, colored woodcut:
intense, just like the singer.
by the International Biennial of Graphic Arts of Guanlan, China, to take part
in the Guanlan Original Printmaking
Base workshop, together with a group of selected international
printmakers for a period of 45 days, Maria Bonomi worked on a series of new
images in which she updated themes she had worked on previously while
reinventing artistic propositions.
At the exhibition
Arte na Moda: Coleção Masp Rhodia,
the artist participated with an unusual work, in which she made a print on a
dress made in the 1970s, recovered by the museum under the curatorship of Tomás
Bonomi’s creative drive was clearly manifested in 2014 in the installation Circumstantiam.
Commissioned by Sesc, the artist installed in the large multi-floor spacious lobby
of Sesc Belenzinho an artwork that radicalized the ideas that have always been
part of her oeuvre: grandiosity and reproducibility. The work – which involved
15 woodcuts on a total of 21 quadrants measuring 4 x 4 meters each, together
with cables and suspended mirrors, executed on recyclable paper and biodegradable
aluminum – is an example of an ephemeral work to be distributed in a public
space after it is taken apart, as was done in the case of Infecção da
Memória [Infection of Memory], a work of 2005.
Circumstantiam, an artwork that refers to questions concerning
the environmental preservation and pollution of our planet, was unique not so
much for its dimensions and ephemerality, but for its requiring the spectator
to walk through the space, observing the artwork from various points within the
building, including from inside the complex’s swimming pool, located under a
glass ceiling through which one can see the reflections of the prints digitally
transposed to the colossal sheets of paper.
since for the artist engraving is always a ceaseless mutation, after the
installation was taken apart, Bonomi reused various of the engravings for the
corridors of the República Subway Station. Later, the ones not used previously
were taken to the train station in São Caetano do Sul, thus presenting them to
a wider audience.
same year, Bonomi inaugurated a public artwork in Bahia, installed in the
innovative architectural complex of the Mozarteum Brasileiro in Trancoso. According
to the artist, that work composed of two bronze panels commemorated the
discovery of Brazil, “the flora and fauna in the magical bluffs along the
seashore, sculpting two plaques in low relief, 3.70 x 2.50 meters and weighing
400 kilograms each. They were embedded in the giant triangular gaps in the
façade of the building by François Valentiny, designed for 1,200 people”
(sponsored by L’Occitane).
theater, from Bahia to Rio, from the wall to the stage, the versatile artist’s
work is always linked to questions that pervade the art world, as when she
created the stage settings and costumes for the play Gertrude Stein, Alice Toklas e Pablo Picasso, presented at Teatro
Leblon, which is known for offering a space for reflections on the role of the
avant-garde in the construction of modern thought – whether artistic or
important role she has played in cultural questions of Brazil and the city of
São Paulo, Maria Bonomi was nominated by the then city councilmember Andrea
Matarazzo for the highest honor of City Hall: the title of São Paulo City
Citizen, conferred to her by unanimous vote. In the words of the former
Brazilian ambassador in Rome: “The artist’s legacy for her adopted city is
immense […] She has inscribed her name in the history of São Paulo based on
works in the field of public art, […] creating references that bring together
and guide the population.”
the first decade of the 2000s, in celebration of the more than 60 years of her
career, Maria Bonomi inaugurated a series of solo shows, coordinated by Maria
Helena Peres Oliveira, in which she presented a selection of her most important
works. At those shows, held at the Pinacoteca de São Paulo in 2008, in Gallery 32
of London in 2009, at the CCBB of Brasília in 2011, at the Maison de l'Amérique
Latine of Paris in 2012, and at the Circulo de Bellas Artes of Madrid in 2013, Bonomi
continued to demonstrate all of her quality and energy, since, besides showing
artworks that evidenced the importance of her career path begun in the 1950s, she
also showed recent works.
2013 was also important for a less well-known yet nonetheless important aspect
of the artist. Maria Bonomi has always been connected with the discussions concerning
the cultural and artistic politics of the city of São Paulo and other states in
Brazil. Whether by following the conversations and negotiations that founded
many of the cultural institutions of São Paulo, including the Bienal de São
Paulo, or by engaging in the debate about access to art or artistic
professionalization, or concerning the role of galleries in the Brazilian art world,
throughout her career, Bonomi has become a referential figure in the national
art scene. Not by chance, she has taken part in countless commissions and
councils of important Brazilian institutions, such as those of MAM, the
Pinacoteca, MASP, OSESP, the Associação Internacional dos Artistas Plásticos, the
Sindicato dos Artistas Plásticos, Instituto Lina Bo e P. M. Bardi, Fundação
Bunge, and others.
Navegar é Preciso [Sailing is Necessary] is a public artwork, cast
in bronze, made on the basis of the prow of a ship that sailed through 2012 and
came to port, gleaming, in the gardens of the Palácio dos Bandeirantes, the headquarters
of the São Paulo State Government.
uneasy and pioneering spirit, which has always accompanied Maria Bonomi, was
what led her to expand her art to new audiences. From Brazil to France,
crossing the Atlantic Ocean and disembarking in Paris, the artist presented a
solo show at the Maison de l’Amérique Latine. Traveling from the French capital
to Slovenia, she participated in the important collective exhibition The Big Ones!, an artistic contest that
sought to present and discuss the insertion of large-scale artworks in the
field of graphic arts worldwide, featuring artists who played a key and
revolutionary role in this aspect, as did Maria Bonomi, who since the 1960s
occupied the walls of the Paris Biennale with prints that surpassed the usual
dimensions for the genre.
Criação Incessante [Ceaseless Creation] was the theme and catalog
title that oriented the curatorship of Jorge Coli in the most complete solo
show held by Maria Bonomi, featuring more than 300 works at the CCBB of
Brasília, including works made in her childhood. It was an exhibition of great
impact, especially for including a series of works shown there for the first
time, the result of Bonomi’s unflagging dedication to her art. The novelties
included artworks she made in a foray into digital art after an experience in
San Francisco with leading practitioners of this innovative graphic language: Cairo January, Trozo and Lena are
examples. Indeed, a bold and transformative spirit has always guided Maria Bonomi
in her artistic incursions in a wide range of different artistic languages.
this distinguishing experimentation with digital media, in that same year she
also produced outstanding work in the field of artisanal engraving, producing
the woodcut A Ponte [The Bridge]. A
monumental work, larger than 1.70 x 2.60 m, it was described in by Jorge Coli
in his text about the installation the artist made by multiplying the waves
under the bridge, proliferating them along the wall in the series Águas Sólidas [Solid Waters], in objects
cut from steel sheets by laser. Despite the praise by the professor from
Unicamp, it was not until 2015 that his colleague Teixeira Coelho posed A Ponte as a metaphor of the artist
herself and her career. According to the professor from USP, looking at the
engraving “does good for the eyes and for the soul,” since it is an example of
an “art the size of the world.”
according to Teixeira Coelho, in light of this woodcut, “Maria redefined
engraving by avoiding the intimist, shy, somber and nearly painful scenario of
naturalist engraving, preferring instead to use large-scale dimensions and
color in order to impart to this language various perspectives of a thrilling
world. In more than one field of art, the ode is the form for an artist to express
his or her pleasure and enthusiasm for art and life: the same word eloquently defines
Maria Bonomi’s eloquence, a continuous ode to life and to the world, something
that becomes more evident in the informal setting of her studio than in the
well-ordered and very well-behaved atmosphere of an exhibition at a museum or
based on this transformative idea that Bonomi created, in 2010, the artworks Favela and Paris Rilton. In the former, cast in aluminum, the artist points to
a civic dimension of her work, while in the latter she ironically approaches an
aspect of behavioral banality. Paris
Rilton is a piece cast in bronze, iron and aluminum, grooved by the
artist’s own refinement, displayed on top of mirrors. In the upper surface
there is an orifice through which one can take out the most unexpected futilities
of feminine beautification, in a clear reference to the vacuousness of some
leading media figures, including the socialite heiress of one of the largest
hotel chains in the world. The sculpture is accompanied by an experimental
video made by Walter Silveira which illustrates the proposal anecdotally.
five days of nonstop work in the studio of Fundação Iberê Camargo, with master
printer Eduardo Haesbaert, in Porto Alegre, Bonomi made two engravings, one in
homage to the great painter, Hommage a
Iberê Camargo, and the other inspired not only by the institution’s studio
room, whose atmosphere reminded the artist of the tale by Borges, but above all
by the idea of the extreme contrast of the trees seen through the window of the
room in relation to the white walls: Aleph
is the title of an engraving in metal that refers to a beginning through
reference to the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, while also alluding to
the universe, following the fantastic imagination of the Argentine writer.
year of 2009, Maria Bonomi took part in international exhibitions, most notably
including the solo show held at Gallery 32 in London, presented by Marcelo
Araújo, as well as her participation at the Biennale Internazionale Dell'Arte
Contemporanea di Firenze, for which she received a grand prize.
dedicating herself to international shows, the engraver also focused on her
artistic production and produced the sculpture in cast aluminum Amor Inscrito [Inscribed Love].
According to Bonomi, the grooves of this work, engraved in plaster, re-create
the experiences of acts of love. A singular work, Amor Inscrito results from a myriad of technical possibilities: on
the one hand the artist works on the solidification of aluminum in the carved-out
elements, inverting the logic of the groove, on the other, she extracts the
artistic object from the lined material. According to Ana Maria Belluzzo:
“Maria Bonomi’s artworks spring from the densification of experience. And the process
of their development includes transformations, superpositions and resumptions
on the basis of new perspectives, setbacks and advances.”
year of 2009 also saw the beginning of a new effort aimed at the preservation
of Maria Bonomi’s artistic memory. Maria Helena Peres Oliveira instated and
began to coordinate an institution aimed at concentrating the most significant
part of Bonomi’s artistic production, as well as the extensive body of critical
texts that have been written about them, through the organization of a
bibliographic data bank and the constitution of an archive of artworks and
matrices. The firm Atelier Maria Bonomi Ltda was established as a fundamental
center for the production and dissemination of the artist’s work and for
engraving in general, equipped with all the tools needed for the three main
techniques of engraving, as well as a high temperature furnace and a commercial
relations department, responsible for the sale and lending of the artworks.
invitation of Oscar Niemeyer, the experience of collective art was repeated and
re-signified in the project Etnias: do
Primeiro e Sempre Brasil [Ethnicities: Of the First and Forever Brazil] a
work installed in the tunnel between São Paulo’s subway system and the Memorial
da América Latina. The project is centered on the theme of the Brazilian Indians
and the entire process of aculturation and destruction that they suffered
throughout 500 years of history. Besides a large team of artists and
technicians, the execution of the work relied on the participation of Guarani
Indians, representing the villages located in the environs of São Paulo and in
other regions of Brazil. The result of an intense research into texts by Darcy Ribeiro
and a vast collection of colonial iconography, the panel seeks to direct the
passerby’s gaze to questions related to the indigenous contribution to
Brazilian culture in three phases, engraved in clay and transformed into
ceramic, bronze and aluminum. The first segment represents the indigenous
territory and culture before the Portuguese occupation, the second relates to
European and native elements, showing how the travelers saw the indigenous
Americans, while the third refers to the current scene, casting a questioning
light on the destruction of the Brazilian Indians.
2008, Maria Bonomi was the special invited artist at the X Bienal do Recôncavo
and held two large solo shows, one at the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo,
presented by Ana Maria Belluzzo, and the other at the Centre de la Gravure et
de l'Image Imprimée, in Brussels, organized by Catherine de Braekeleer. About
the latter exhibition, the director of the Belgian center wrote: “Maria Bonomi’s
artistic approach is composed of multiple facets: through permanent contact
with the material that she attacks and grinds in a fundamentally organic and
sensorial gesture, the artist makes rhythms appear in her matrices whose
profound and sensual vibrations resound in a graphic exultation; this lyrical
approach is coupled with a civic and humanitarian dimension that finds its full
flourishing in various creations of public art.”
Bonomi’s large solo exhibition Gravura
Peregrina, held at the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo in 2008, Ana Maria
Belluzzo wrote that “for Maria it is always time to play. Symbolic games, in
which the landscapes constructed by the gaze come together with interior
places. Games of feeling operated at the moment of cutting the shape, at the
moment of its printing. It is the time of moving, stirring, shifting to a new
position, displacing, transporting the technique of engraving to other
materials and supports. Playing with and sabotaging the rules of the game. Just
as Maria plays with the matrices of printmaking, she also plays with words. The
names given to her pieces do not predefine the artworks, but rather converse
Plexus is an artwork cast in aluminum whose grooves
allude to feelings. The sculpture, installed in 2013 at Praça Oswaldo Cruz, at
the beginning of São Paulo’s Avenida Paulista, is a representation of love. According
to the artist, Plexus “is a sensorial
experience in which I sought to reveal a body within the groove.”
intensity of the impassioned carvings that mark the faces of the sculpture Plexus are multiplied, cut out, in Love Layers, a series of objects cast in
bronze, brass and aluminum which, as the name indicates, particularizes
De Viés was a solo show that Francisco Bosco presented
at the Museu Oscar Niemeyer de Curitiba, with a significant set of works that
the artist produced over the course of her career.
long, productive path of her career is also the focus of the book Maria Bonomi: da Gravura à Arte Pública,
by Mayra Laudanna and Leon Kossovitch published by Edusp and the Imprensa
Oficial. A fundamental work for understanding the artist’s oeuvre, in
particular, and the history of art in Brazil, in general, the publication
presents Bonomi as one of Brazil’s key artists, especially in regard to the
discussions on public art. Divided into three chapters, the book presents the
artist’s doctoral thesis, defended at the Universidade de São Paulo,
“Arte-Pública: Sistema Expressivo/Anterioridade,” where she proposes art as a
starting point for the full development of citizenship. Complementing the thesis,
there is an artistic timeline and an article, insightfully written by the
to Teixeira Coelho: “Reading and looking at this book is an occasion on which to
remember, also, that Bonomi is one of the key players in Brazilian and
international art. That is not a role for just anyone. Notwithstanding the
upsurge of her award-winning presence on the international scene, she never forgot
about Brazil and what was at play here, as shown by her participation, during
the dictatorship, in the boycott of the 1969 Bienal de São Paulo and her skirmishes
with the Bienal during the 1990s under Collor and his politics for the
destruction of the cultural scene. A big book, it is nonetheless a light one that
ends with an ‘artistic narrative,’ authored by the editor and by Leon
Kossovitch, which presents a sort of investigative timeline that can be more
effective than a great deal of theoretical study. At first sight, the book may
appear too fragmented and informal for an artist of this significance and with
the immense life of Maria Bonomi to be shown fully and engagingly. It could
have been a bilingual book: outside Brazil they need to know more about an
artist who is as much from here as from there. They need it and would like it.”
with the fervor of the crack soccer player, ripping though the wood and
constructing the line, Maria Bonomi advanced the wandering geometry of her
groove, tracing the parallel of the impossible, creating a very essential
woodcut, Gool!!!, presenting a slice
of the emotion of a shot into the goal and the culmination of the soccer
player’s finesse, in keeping with the aim of Rio de Janeiro composer Chico Buarque.
To the amazed delight of soccer fans in Germany, Bonomi and ten other invited
artists brought the true art of Brazilian soccer to the Brazilian Embassy at
the exhibition Os Onze – Futebol e Arte,
a Copa da Cultura.
World Cup year, the artist herself won a victory, though in another field, and
was decorated with the Grand Cross of the Ipiranga Order by the then São Paulo
State Governor Cláudio Lembo.
outstanding printmaker, Bonomi was an honored artist at the II Bienal
Internacional Ceará de Gravura where she participated with a room dedicated
exclusively to her work.
possibilities for public art, she reproduced in aluminum the panel entitled Eroscopia [Eroscope], originally
produced in concrete in 1990 for a residence in São Paulo.
year, Maria Bonomi traveled the world, showing her work at dozens of venues, at
solo shows and collective exhibitions in Brazil and abroad. At Museo de Huelva,
she held the exhibition María Bonomi.
Vestida de Luz, Cubierta de Blanco, para Viajar por el Mundo, curated by Samir
Assaleh, which shed light on the printmaker’s overall oeuvre and emphasized the
importance of her traveling in search of the dream and beauty. Her colors were
the highlight, along with the immensity of her prints, which drew droves of
visitors on the Spanish plains as well as in the distant Oriental lands. In
China, the artist participated in the Second Beijing International Art
Biennial, and resumed a profound artistic relationship with the country, begun
in the 1970s with the series Transamazônica
e China [Trans-Amazonian and China].
trips the artist took in search of the dream and beauty provided not only the
substance for engravings, but also the essence of the stage settings and
costumes she made for the play written by Ignácio de Loyola Brandão and
directed by Sérgio Ferrara, A Última
Viagem de Borges, a theatrical event sponsored by SESC that opened the Festival
de Cinema de Curitiba, with subsequent presentations in São Paulo.
artist also honored Bahian composer Dorival Caymmi in her work: the woodcut Sábado em Copacabana [Saturday in
Copacabana] had great impact at the show A
Imagem do Som, presented in various Brazilian state capitals.
period spanning between the pieces dedicated to the Borges and Caymmi,
respectively, Maria Bonomi collaborated in many collective projects, demonstrating
once again that art is a collective action and should therefore be socialized.
It was in this vein – which has always guided her artistic career – that Bonomi
conceived the Atelier Amarelo. A collective studio installed in 2005 in
downtown São Paulo, in partnership with the State Secretariat of Culture, this
artistic workshop allowed its resident artists, chosen through a selection
process, to propose social and poetic reflections about the city. During the
three terms of the Atelier Amarelo’s activity, more than two dozen artists were
able to deepen their artistic knowledge and broaden their network of
professional and artistic contacts. Artists who participated in the project
most notably include Fabrício Lopez and Henrique de Oliveira.
Taking the idea of collective art to its ultimate consequences, Maria Bonomi installs a colleotive studio in the annex to the University of São Paulo's Museum of Contemporary Art, for the purpose of producing the matrixes of the Epopeia Paulista panel, a work created to connect metropolitan trains and subway stations in the Estacao da Luz. in its, artists, laborers, technicians and students engrave the panel's matrixes, actively participating in the composition of the 73 meter composition. Some 180 plates were engraved from over 700 drawings of objects collected over a period of one hundred years at the station's Lost and Found section.
The Epopeia Paulista [Sao Paulo Epic] narrates the history of immigration to the city of Sao Paulo through objects, chapbook images and local oral histories. According to the artist’s vision, three levels of the city's existence are inscribed upon the panel: the history of the European immigrant, recently arrived in the land of
coffee (the past being represented by the color red), that of the immigrants from the Brazilian Northeast [the present, represented by the color yellow] and a final, as
yet non-existent level which shail one day exist. the tuture (as represented by the color white). According to Maria Bonomi: "It is actuatty the spectator who becomes a creator as he passes through this great painting which occupies the surrounding underground space and tems the story of the environs, its needs and excesses [...] Our work makes public the great adventure of imagination and is directed to whosoever passes through there, eternally nourishing society and history wit the assurance that nothing happened in vain".
After a period of absence from the theater, Bonomi designs the sets for Maria Adelaide Amaral's play Tarsila about the lives of the four most important Brazilian modernists: Mario and Oswald de Andrade, Anita Malfatti and, of course, Tarsila do Arnaral. Bonomi elects the painters easel as the set's focal point, around which the narrative unfolds on three levels. Further scenic elements are introduced in the guise of paintings by Tarsila, as reproduced by Bonomi and other artists
This project leads naturally into Um so Coração [One Heart], a television mini-series also authored by Maria Adelaide Amaral and broadcast over the Globo television network. ln the series. Maria Bonomi is played by actress Maria Luisa Mendonça.
She creates two sculptures on wheels in mirrored aluminum for the Leticia Amaral residence, in Sao Paulo, called As Letícias [The Letitias].
She presents Tetraz, an exhibition at the Centro Brasileiro Britânico, where she produces an installation bearing the same name. A collective work which includes the participation of Carlos Pedreañez and Steve Wingrove, responsible for the theoretical part of the instaltation. Maria Bonomi seeks to expose the self destruction of humanity by using the myth of the self destructing Tetraz bird. In this sense, she points out problems regarding the devastation of nature, the apparent irrationality of mankind and the brevity of life. Knives are thrust into boxes of earth: the walls are covered with images of sickness and newspaper clippings; over them is a three-meter long print of cutting objects and diﬂerent beings.
In 2000. the artist concludes Nemeton, a panel for the Faria Lima Premium building. According to the artist, Nemeton, a word of Celtic origin means both forest and sanctuary.
The following year, Bonomi participates, with a special room, in the 3rd Internationai Triennial of Graphic Art, in Prague. At the 1998 and 2004 triennials, she is curator of the Brazilian delegation and member of International Jury. In 2002, at Serasa headquarters in São Paulo. Bonomi installs a sculpture based on the trophy she designed for the institution in 1998. Ginete Serasa, engraved aluminum measuring more than 4,50m in height, symbolizes horse and horseman, medium and message, together, leading [oonducting?] information.
Also in 2002, Maria Bonomi exhibits Náiades e Ninfas [Nayads and Nymphs], concave and convex objects, cast in bronze, brass and aluminum created in 2000 as a tribute to Pietro Maria Bardi and Lina Bo Bardi. During these years, the artist receives two lifetime achievement awards: the Premio Mario Pedrosa, awarded her in 2000 by the Brazilian Association of Art Critics; and 2002’s Premi Italia nel Mondo, awarded by
the Fondazione Italia nel Mondo.
In her thesis, the artist lists six basic ideas that conduct a work of public art: visualization, pubic art must produce a powerful impact; execution, relationship between visuality and technology; location. spatial perception that allows for the creation
Begun in 1994, Construção de São Paulo [Construction of São Paulo] is concluded In 1998. It consists of two concrete cubes installed In the Jardim São Paulo subway
station. Occupying the station's balusuade and suspended above the tracks, the cubes cereb
As of 1995, Maria Bonomi becomes the representative of the Brazilian delegation at the International Exhibition of Graphic Art in Ljubljana.
In 1996. Bonomi participates in the First edition of Brahma Reciclarte, where she exhibits Metempsicose [Metempsychosis] in Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden,
manikins covered in aluminum cans wearing hats made of soda pop bottles.
In 1997, she creates a mobile sculpture calted Páginas [Pages] for the garden of the São Paulo State Archive. In it, Bonomi creates grooves in the surface of the clay mold as if she were writing with her instruments. Once It has been cast in aluminum for posterely the Inscription is eternalzed in public memory, according to the
During these years. Bonomi, devotes herself to wood-cuts, printing forms that condense graphic energy in large dimensions. Thus she creates works whose
graphic syntheses explode in passion and vitality; Sappho I, from 1987 and Apoteose [Apotheosis] from 1998, are examples of this. Their powerful colors evince a play of transparencies and revelations.
In the 1994 Tropicália series, based on her experiments with fractal art, Bonomi composes an image that originates in
the manipulation of matrixes which make up a form that is made, unmade and re-made.
In 1993. based on personal experience, she creates O Pente. Tempo... [The Comb. Time...], a 1993 wood block print measuring 1,00 m by 2.65 m, in which she relativizes the banality at everyday life by rendering it on a monumental scale. Similarly, interpreting experiences, the artist creates Medusas, wood block prints begun in 1993 and presented in 1996.
In 1993, at the 3° Studio Internacipnal de Tecnologias de lmagem, the artist presents Tempo - Video - Pente [Time - video - Comb], a work based on the aforementioned wood block print.
In 1994, with poet Haroldo de Campos, Maria Bonomi publishes O Elogio da Xilo. Situações Xilograficas [In Praise of Xilo. Xilograpgic Situations], an album of
manually printed wood block prints and ink jet prints that establish visual relationships with the poem that the concretist dedicates to the printer.
Maria Bonomi is invited to erect a sculpture at the Praça da Ci, located in Sao Paulo‘s Pinhelros quarter. Sculpted in stone and cast in bronze, the monument is a metaphor for motherhood and, as such, it pays tribute to Cecilia Périgo Saldiva, mother of the individuals who comissioned the work Anjo [Angel], inaugurated in 1992 by then mayor of São Paulo Luiza Erundina, stands in the square until April, 2001, when it was destroyed aﬂer parts of it were stolen.
Elected president of the technical art committee of the 21st International São Paulo Art Biennial in 1990, Bonomi begins work on a new project, the objective of which is a re-structuring of the Bienniel privileging art over business. The following year, however, alter denouncing administrative irregularities in the aforementioned Biennial, she is dismissed from the Council along with curator Jacob Klintowitz, setting off an unprecedented crisis.
Maria Bonomi organizes a special room at the 20th International São Pauio Art Biennial in homage to Octavio Pereira, master-printer with whom she began a partnership during the late 1960s. The room contains lithographs by various artists who worked with Octavio Pereira until his death in 1988, and includes work by
Darel, Renina Katz, Tomie Ohtake, and Nori Figueiredo, among many others.
In public art, at the Memorial da America Latina, still under construction. Bonomi is invited by Oscar Niemeyer to erect a panel in cement-soil called Futura Memoria [Future Memory], in it, the artist inscribes mythical Latin American traditions that cover the entire territory from Mexico to Patagonia. Through the use of signs. she relates beliefs and convictions that could unite Latin America in a single direction, from the remote past to the unknown future.
Among other activities, during the course of these years Maria Bonomi makes panels exclusively in residences of Sao Paulo and Manaus, and for financial institutions such as the Banco Exterior de Espanhe, in Santiago, Chile, the project for which Bonomi submits in 1984, and the Sudameris Bank, in Sao Paulo, finished in 1987.
Also during these years, Bonomi is invited to create trophies, such as the Apetesp de Teatro, the Eldorado de Musica and the Vilanova Artigas, for the Architects’ Union of the State of Sao Paulo.
Maria Bonomi Creates concave or semi-flat objects in brass, bronze and aluminum, modded from grooved clay. Epigramas [Epigrams], exhibited at the Galeria Multipla along with Biombos [Screens] (project by Haron Cohen, painting by Maria Bonomi). These works free the viewer's imagination because they are open to deciphering. In the Epigramas [Epigrams], Bonorni concentrates on relief and polish in her muitiples for residential spaces.
During this period. Bonomi participates in a number of shows in Brazil and abroad, in most of which she primarily exhibits lithographs produced since 1978. One such show takes place in 1960 at the Casa Teller Galeria de arte, in Paraguay, where Bonomi accepting Lívio Abramo's invitation, presents a solo exhibition. In 1983, at the 15th International Exhibition of Graphic Art, in Ljubljana, Maria Bonomi is awarded the International Jury Prize for her work in lithography. Two years later. at the 16th International Exhibition of Graphic Art as a result of the prize she received in 1983. Bonomi is given special room for a retrospective of her work.
Inspired by a Philippine landscape of rice fields in Bengüet, Bonomi designs panels for the Maksoud Plaza Hotei in São Paulo. In Paisagem [Landscape] and Memória [Memory], the artist reproduces the grooves of a wooden matrix in concrete. For the panels, Bonomi is awarded the Grand Prize by the São Paulo Association or Art Critics.
In 1977, Bonomi becomes a member of the Art and Culture Council of the 14th Intemational São Paulo Art Biennial, the ﬁrst after the death of Ciccillo Matarazzo. At
that biennial, characterized by restructuring, the Council promotes the exhibitioms approximation with Latin American countries, making room for young artists from all
over the continent. For the ﬁrst time, the artists are granted the right to cadidate themselves and self-classify themselves in the new modalities proposed, such as, for euxample, Arte Catastrófica, Recuperação da Paisagem, among others. However, the greatest innovation is that the artists are allowed to present their propositions independently of the support used, entering the modality Arte não Catalogada.
Nonetheless, Bonomi leaves the Council in 1977 due to disagreements with other council members and indignation at the Biennialls funds. The artist reasumes her functions at the following year, and helps to organize the 1st Latin American Biennial.
Also in 1977, Swiss ﬁlm-maker Patrick Goettelen directs a short film about Bonomi's work called Maria Bonomi et la Force de la Nature [Maria Bonomi and the Force of Nature].
In partnership with Glatt Ymagos, Bonomi devotes herself to lithography. She also produces certain exclusively corporate projects.
Based on her experiences in stage design and her research into the graphic arts, Bonomi begins to work with public art. Since the 1960s, the artists work had
been characterized by its monumental scale. As the prints grow in size, they seek coexistence in public and private spaces, both for purposes of advertising and
decoration. Thus, by moving from engraving to art in concrete, Bonomi begins work on her ﬁrst project in 1974 and ﬁnishes it in 1976: the altar of the Mãe do Salvador Church, better known as the Church of the Cruz Torta, located in São Paulos Pinheiros quarter. This project is followed by one for the Jorge Riskalah Jorge building located on the corner of avenida Paulista and rua Bela Cintra, and another for the Esporte Clube Sírio both in São Paulo and dated 1976.
As a result of research undertaken In China and in the Amazon. the artist gives a series of lectures at museums in Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre, among
other cities. According to a statement made in 2002, while delivering a lecture on Chinese Art at the Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo, the artist and art critic Alberto Beuttenmueller are brutally arrested, hooded, bound and taken to a deserted location. Alter several hours of physical and verbal abuse they were taken to a
place described as some sort of headquarters for the control of threats to the military regime, where she and Beuttenmueller were charged with being communist Sympathizers. Arthough she was unable to specify how long she remained there, Maria Bonomi recalls the situation as interminable and Terrifying, for she
was submitted to intensive interrogation.
During these years, the print-maker devotes herself to a series of prints inspired by her travels in the Amazon, in China and in Japan and to the research she carried out in those places.
Bonomis woodcuts are the product or a vast collection of notes, slowly transformed into the Transamazonian and China series. The most outstanding works in this series are Como se Fossem Palavras, Cabis and Pedra Robat, works in which the artist exceeds the most common measurements of Brazilian prints by developing them according to a natural scale.
In partnership with Construhab, Maria Bonomi plans an innovative artistic undertaking in which visual artists would occupy the foyers of buildings under construction to create works that will become integral parts of the buildings. The artist describes this undertaking as Espaco Vivo [Living Space]. Brazilian-based Greek sculptor Nicolas Vlavianos is the first to participate by creating a wok for a building on rua Caiowaa, in Sao Paulo. Other participating Espaço Vivo artists include Evandro Carlos Jardim, Maria Helena Chartuni and Maria Bonomi herselfi. Nonetheless, ﬁnancial difficulties preclude the Espaço Vivo experiment from going beyond the Vlavianos project.
At the 12th São Paulo International Biennial, Bonomi is invited to exhibit in a special room dedicated to Tarsila do Amaral and decides to present a film in lieu of prints. On the wall of the room the artist writes: “That which could have been in this space fit better in Detritos, a 16mm film, directed by Maria Bonomi and Thomas Farkas, on exhibition at this Biennial". Bonomi's attitude once more protested against the organizers of the show and the political situation of the country.
Alert to the specificities of the matrix, Bonomi launches pieces in colored polyester that reproduce print rnatrixes: Solombras, a tribute to Cecilia Meireles. In so doing, the print-maker multiplies the matrix and editions it.
That same year, at the request of the Matarazzo industries, she designs tiles along with other artists such as Emanuel Araujo, Burle Marx, Carlos Scliar and Darcy Penteado, among others.
Similariy, at the request of the Rhodia company, and along with Livio Abramo, Fayga Ostrower, Antônio Maluf, among others, she designs fabric prints.
Invited by Niomer Moniz Sodré Bittencourt, Maria Bonomi and Jayme Mauricio organize an exhibition at the Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro designed by Karl-Heinz Bergmüller in which the innovative mounting is more oi a demonstration of the process or engraving than a simple show, since the artist presents the stages of her work. In an open studio, she teaches courses and answers questions while working on prints in the presence of visitors.
At the opening of this exhibition, Bonomi launches Balada do Terror e Oito Variações [Ballad of Terror and Eight Variations], an album of lithographs that the artist
began working on in Sao Paulo in 1968 with master printer Octavio Pereira.
Also In 1971, a letter Irom Clarice Lispector, Bonomi's friend and godmother to her son, is published in the October 2 edition of the Journal do Brasil. In It, Clarice Lispector writes about the matrix of a Bonomi print called A Águia [The Eagle], ointing out that the record of all the emotions lies in the matrix and not in the print — all the work of the instruments, the grooves, the carvings and outlines of the composition.
In Europe, she holds a solo exhibition at Munich's Galerie Buchholz. the catalogue introduction to the artist's work is written by Mélio Pedrosa.
At the recently-inaugurated Praça Hoosevelt, in São Paulo, Maria Bonomi holds an exhibition of silk-screened posters featuring poems by Carlos Drummond de
Andrade. Speaking to her interest in public spaces, on the occasion of this exhibition the artist declares in the February 4 edition of Estado de S. Paulo: "It would be
wonderful if every type of art were on view in public squares”.
As a member of the pre-biennial advisory council on the visual arts in 1968, Bonomi participates directly in the Fundação Bienal de Sao Paulo's decision-making
process. The following year, however, worn out from constant disagreements with the organizers of the aforementioned biennial and disappointed with the country's political directions, according to a letter to Ciccillo Matarazzo dated August 8, 1969, Bonomi, in addition to resigning from the Biennial's advisory board, also turns down an imitation to show her work in a special room at the 10th lntemational Sao paulo Biennial, thus joining the boycott promoted by Brazilian artists.
In Europe, however, she exhibits at the Triennale Internazionale Della Xilografia Contemporanea, in Carpi, Italy, and at the 8th International Exhibition odf Graphic Art en Liubliana (formerly Yugoslavia), where she is awarded the Musée d'Art Moderne à Ljubljana acquisition prize.
In Brazil. also in 1969, at the XXIII Salão Municipal de Belas Artes de Prefeitura de Belo Horizonte, she is awarded the Belo Horizonte Mayor's Office Grand Prize for her wood block print A Águia [ The Eagle].
This year, she integrates the selection of Brazitian artists invited by Antônio Bento to show their work at the Fifth Paris Biennial, an exhibition for artists under the age of
35. Seeking to break boundaries, Maria Bonomi demands up to two meters of space and greater visibility for her prints, rather than ordinary display cases even though, in so doing, she may be disrespecting the rules of the Paris Biennial.
The artist recalls that she, Antonio Bandeira, Jacques Lassaigne and the Cuban delegation sparked controversy in order to be granted permission to exhibit her prints on the walls. On the very next day, the artist receives the Theadoron Foundation Prize.
Also in 1967. with singer-songwriter Chico Buarque de Holanda, art critic Mário Pedrosa, artist and poet Ferreira Gullar, and author Ligia Fagundes Teles, she signs a document published in the Santos newspaper A Tribuna, on January 15, denouncing the anti-democratlc nature of the Brazilian Constitution.
Dunng this busy year, Bononi is once again recognized for her ﬁne work in theater and receives the Figurinista prize (APCA), two Saci de Teatro awards (for Best
Costume Design and Best Set Design), the Molière Prize for best Set Design and the Governador do Estado Pize for Best Set Design, all for her work on Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. She also designs costumes for a production at Shakespeare's Julio Caesar.
Bonomi holds solo exhibitions at Rio de Janeiro Petite Galerie at the Cosme Velho gallery in Sao Paulo.
With Fernando Lemos, Maria Eugenia Franco and Salvador Cândia, she co-authors Por uma Reestruturação das Bienais [For a Re-Structuring of the Biennials], in which they identify problems and present solutions for the maintenance of the biennial exhinitions as an important medium for the dissemination of new artistic talent.
In the newspapers of 1965, art critics note Maria Bonomi's prints award for best Brazilian print-maker at the 8th International Sao Paulo Art Biennial. They single out the colors and measurements of the artist's prints, pointing out their beauty and monumentality.
The artist's openly voiced political concern is also praised. At the inaugural ceremony of the 7th Biennial Maria Bonomi presents Brazilian president Castello Branco with a petition signed by various intellectuals to revoke the "preventive imprisonment" of Mario Schemberg, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Florestan Fernandes and Cruz Costa.
Al the 6th Sao Paulo Biennial (in 1963), the artist shows six wood block prints (one of wich - Espacial [Spatial] - is awarded an Acuisition Prize) and participates in
the adjacent theater biennial, at which she presents a model and costumes for Garcia Lorca's Yerma, performed at the Teatro Brasileiro de Comédia in 1962, and a model for the set of Roberto Freire's play Sem Entrada e Sem Mais Nada, performed at the Teatro Maria Della Costa in 1961.
In 1964, she is invited to integrate the Brazilian pavilion mounted at the 32nd International Biennial in Venice, along with Volpi, Tarsila do Amaral and others. The twenty-five works she exhibits at the Italian biennial impress European gallery owners, who invite the artist to show her work in galleries in France, Austria, Germany and the former Yugoslavia. During these years, she participates in the Giroflé publishing company's child education project; for them, she illustrates Sindlcato dos Burros, a book of children's stories by Fernando Silva, published in 1963, and Ou lsto ou Aquilo, a book of poems by Cecilia Meireles, published in 1964.
In 1960, with Lívio Abramo, she founds an experimental studio dedicated to teaching wood block and metal cut engraving: the
Estúdio Gravura. In addition to its teaching activities, the Estúdio produces invitations, posters and books: so much so that.
In 1961, it publishes the Album Brazil: a selection of Brazilian historical documents, compiled by Sergio Buarque de Hollanda, and a selection of prints by Maria Bononmi, Lívio Abramo ans joão Luís Chaves, an artist who begins to teach at Estúdio in 1961
Also in 1960, the print-maker begins designing theatrical sets and costumes. Invited by the Tonia-Celi-Autran company, Maria Bonomi does set and costume designs for Hoje Comemos Rosas [Today we Eat Roses] by Walmir Ayala and Endgame by Samuel Beckett, presented in repertory at the Teatro Bela Vista during June and July 1960. In December of that same year, she designs sets and costumes for Arthur Miller's The Crucible, for which she receives her ﬁrst theatrical award (New Talent) in 1961 from the Sao Paulo Art Critics Association.
In 1961, Bonomi marries director Antunes Filho and, in 1962, gives birth to their son, Cássio Luis Bonomi Antunes.
In addition to working on several theatrical productions with Antunes Filho, Bonomi and her husband also coproduce a television program for the new defunct Exelsior network called TV Arte, in which personalities from the art world are interviewed. Poet Hilda Hilst guests on the ﬁrst show. which aired in December, 1961. Over the following years, Arcângelo lanelli, Dora Vasconcellos, Viveca Lindfors, among others, also appear on the program.
After a period painting her sets, Domingos de Andrade becomes the artist's first printer.
After several solo and group exhibitions in the United States, the most important of which was her solo show at the Pan American Union in Washington D. C., Maria
Bonomi returns to Brazil where, in the middle of the year, she begins a series of exhibitions in Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and Porto Alegre of the work she did abroad.
She travels to Rio de Jaheiro for the etching workshop led by Johnny Friedländer at Rio de Janeiro Museum of Modem Art [Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro].
She assists Mário Pedrosa at a Special edition of the international Congress of Art Critics held on the occasion of the founding of Brasilia.
Maria Bonomi begins Museum Training I, under professor Weinberger, a course offered by New York Universiry and taught almost entirely on the premises of the Metropolitan Museum. She studies Advanced Graphic Arts under Hans Muller and Fine Arts under Meyer Schapiro at Columbia University.
Also that year, she takes lessons from Chinese master Seong Moy and, in June, is awarded a sholarship from the Ingram-Merril Foundation to study at the Pratt Contemporary Graphic Art Centre, the center for graphic studies of New York's Pratt Institute.
At Pratt, Maria Bonomi broadens her technical and artistic horizons and begins to produce Large scale prints, some of which measure 90 x 90 centimeters.
Her subject matter, in works resolved through graphic syntheses, deais with nature and urban landscapes as well as inspiration drawn from the private or public events of everyday life. The wood block print Parade belongs to this period, and was suggested by a parade on New York‘ Ffth Avenue; the print was later purchased by Nelson Rockefeller, then governor of the slate of New York.
In November, 1958, Maria Bonomi holds her first solo exhibition in the United States at New York's Roland de Aenlle Gallery. The exhibition is written up in The New
York Times on November 21, 1958, by art critic Dore Ashton, who praises the artist's work. Spanish surrealist Salvador Dali also visits Bonomi's exhibition, as documented in the April 18, 1959 issue of O Cruzeiro weekly newsmagazine.
In December, 1956, Bonomi once again travels to Europe and, the following year, she begins to frequent the studio of Emilio Vedova, an italian painter she met in 1953. In his company, Bonomi visits museums and galleries in Austria, Belgium and Holland. In addition to this, according to a 1999 interview, she helps Vedova along with Cravo. at the studios in Venice and Berlin, assisting him in some of his work.
From Europe, she moves on to the United States late in 1957. In New York, along with Henri Zerner, she begins to frequent the Tânia Grossman's graphic design studio, where she used to run into Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Lee Bontecou and Lee Krasner (Jackson Pollock's widow].
Maria Bonomi holds her first solo exhibition of work produced in 1955 and 1956 at the Museu de Arte Moderna do São Paulo — 58 works including monographs and woodcuts [wood block prints], made during her experience with Karl Plattner and studies with Livio Abramo. Lourival Gomes Machado writes the introduction to the exhibition catalog.
That same year, she shares the 2nd Prêmio de Gravura Arte Contemporânea, (established by industrialist lsai Leirner with Lygia Pape.
Also in 1956, she writes an article published in Paris in XXe Siècie under the title of Rencontre Avec Sophie Taueber-Arp [A Meeting
with Sophie Teueber-Arp].
The artist meets her future teacher: Livio Abramo.
According to Maria, after visiting the print-maiker‘s exhibition at the Museu de Arte Moderna de Sao Paulo
[Sao Paulo Museum of Modern Art] (which was then still located on rua Sete de Abril), she asked him to take her on as an apprentice which, as she herself recalls, comes to pass only alter much insistence.
She begins by sandpapering wood, sharpening instruments and printing her teachers matrixes on rice paper; only after learning how to use the materials of wood block printing does she begin to make her own linoleum block prints. Alter this apprenticeship she begins to work with plank-grain and end-grain block carving.
Also this year, Bonorri participates in two important exhibitbons. At the 3rd Sao Paulo Biennial. she presents the paintings Retrato I [Portrait I] and Catedral [Cathedral], becoming the youngest exhibitor at the Biennial. In Neuchatel, Switzerland, she participates in the Arts Primitifs et Modernes Brésiliens show presented at the Neuchatel Museum of Ethnography. In her ﬁrst show outside Brazil. Bonomi exhibits prints alongside important artists such as Edith Behring. Mancelo Grassmann and her teacher Livio Abramo.
With works in lavis that make use of black and white, the artist illustrates Geraldo
Azevedo's book Vesperal de Silêncio.
This same year. she contributes to the Turin-based review ll 4 Soli, collaborating with the article 'Leterra dal Brazile‘ [“Letter from BraziI"].
Back in Brazil, Bonomi begins to study with Kari Plattner, later helping him, along with Wesley Duke Lee, in the execution of the Painel das Folhas [Leef Panel].
Of her experience with Plattner - establishing a relationship with members of Sao Paulo Concretist movement - and based on her correspondence with Prampolini (filled with references to artistic concepts), Bonomi's art arrives at geometry. This period is represented by a series of works on encaustic, paintings in which Bonomi explores the image after the concretist manner. That same year, she takes part in a group exhitnition called Salão de Agosto at the lnstituto Israelita Brasileiro in Sao Paulo.
There, Bonomi receives honorable mention for the works Porto [Port], Retrato[Portrait], and Sonhos de Uma Noite de Verão [Summer
With Yolanda Mohalyi, she continues to draw and begins to use gouache, lavis and oils. The landscapes she paints during this period represent stains that make
up an image with few detals. One of these is reproduced in an article by Lina Bo Bardi published in a 1952 issue of Habitat on the occasion of a group exhibition at
the Sao Paulo Museum of Art by students of Yolanda Mohalyi's studio.
Also In 1962, Maria Bononi travels to Europe, where she spends most of her with relatives im Milan. Rome and Paris.
She visits studios and collections in Italy with her uncle, architect and art collector Ginetto Luigi Bonomi and she meets collectors, restorers and, evidently, artists, including Marino Marini, Mario Sironi and Alberto Magnelli. It is also through her uncle that Maria Bonorni meets artist Enrico Prampolini in Fiome; she works with him on a stage design and establishes and important artistic relationship in the next years.
A descendant of dlstinguished Italians, in Italy and in Brazil, Maria Bonomi frequents important cultural circles In Sao Paulo and in Rio de Janeiro from an early age, including reunions at the homes of the Magnelli, Ascarelli, Bardi the Matarazzo. Thus, she particpates in important moments of the history of the arts in the capital of Sao Paulo, such as the creation of the International Art Biennial, with which she mantained an occasionally controversial relationship.
At the insistence of Marcela Ascarelli, a family friend and one of the most important art collectors of the day, Maria's mother decides to take the adolescent to the studio of Lasar Segall. After examining thebeginners portfolio, the expressionist telephones painter Yolanda Mohalyi and asks her to advise the future artist.
With Martinelli's death. Maria Bonomi is taken to SãoPaulo, where she attends the Colégio das Cônegas de Santo Agostinho - the Des Oiseaux - and graduates from hlgh school. As she is fond of saying, Maria was always obsessed with drawing. She drew, even because of a problem with deafness that accompanied her as child. At the tender age of twelve, her obsession led the artist to wln a prize for drawing in a school competition.
They travel on to France by train and then to Spain and Portugal, from where they sail to Brazil. In Rio de Janeiro, they stay at the home of Maria's maternal grandfather. the famous Giuseppe Martinelli. The artist's family continues on to Sao Paulo, while she remains at her grandfather's home at the foot of the Morro da Viuva. There, as she tells us, a group of artisans from Lucca live and work with Commander Martinelli. Acoording to the Commanders wishes Rosina, daughter of the contractor Egisto Bertini, teaches Bonomi how to make a dove representing the Holy Spirit to be placed above the door of the chapel on the Hill.
Her childhood In Italy ls marked by the Second World War. According to Maria, her father. a military engineer, fought in the War. The artist also remembers that, around 1942, her home in Italy was ocoupied by the German army and used as a center for war operations. Because she was Brazilian and, as such, had the right to take her family away from ltaly, Georgina Bonomi. tired of the situation, decides to return to Brazil. The family crosses the Italian frontier to Switzerland where they stay with Brazilian diplomat Raul Bopp. The poet gives the six-year-old Maria a copy of Cobra Norato, his book of modernist poems, which the young Maria proceeds to
Born in Meina, village located on the shores of Lake Maggiore, near Milan, in July 1935, Brazilian mother, Georgina Martinelli Bonomi, and Italian father, Ambrógio Bonomi.